Dr. Lauren Schmitz, a New School Economics PhD and National Institute on Aging postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Michigan, joined ReLab's Political Economy of Aging series to present her research on the interplay between historical measures of average schooling at the state level in childhood and genetic propensity for educational attainment on years of education, degree completion, and lifetime earnings.
Her study, summarized below, finds that inequality in educational outcomes by genotype emerges among individuals who were educated in states with lower average educational attainment during their primary schooling years.
The Political Economy of Aging speaker series is a forum for academics and practitioners to share and engage in cutting edge research in social policy and the political economy of aging. The series is designed to forge interdisciplinary connections and examine how to progressively manage an aging society. The series is sponsored by SCEPA's Retirement Equity Lab, led by economists and retirement experts Teresa Ghilarducci and Tony Webb.
This study exploits administrative earnings records matched to detailed genetic and sociodemographic data in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to estimate whether the educational environment, as captured by state-level differences in average years of schooling, modify the associations between genetic propensity for educational attainment and individual schooling, and genetic propensity for educational attainment and lifetime earnings.
To capture the complex genetic architecture that underlies the bio-developmental pathways, behavioral traits, and evoked environments associated with educational attainment, we calculate polygenic scores (PGSs) for respondents in the HRS derived from a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) for years of schooling.
We find evidence that both individual genetic endowment and the state-level educational environment contribute to individual schooling and lifetime earnings, with limited evidence for any interaction between them. The exception is completion of a secondary degree, where we find that individuals educated in states with higher average educational attainment during their primary schooling years were more likely to obtain a GED or high school degree—regardless of genotype—whereas individuals raised in states with below average educational attainment were approximately 7 to 24 percent less likely to obtain a secondary degree than individuals with similar PGSs in higher achieving states.