The first birth cohort exposed to the 401(k) system for most of their working lives is now approaching retirement. 401(k) participants in this cohort have accumulated only about a third of the savings they need to maintain their standard of living in retirement. The 401(k) system fails even those who use it as instructed. High earners are as ill-prepared for retirement as low-and moderate earners. Inadequate wealth accumulations reflect well-known design flaws in the 401(k) system – patchy coverage, high fees, opportunities to take pre-retirement withdrawals, and the lack of a default pathway for converting accumulated wealth into retirement income.
Authors: Teresa Ghilarducci, Bridget Fisher, Siavash Radpour, Anthony Webb